- Boundaries: Atlantic Ocean, Arctic Ocean,
Mediterranean Sea, Ural Mountains/Russian Border.
- Western extremity of
- Lingering world influence
- High degrees of specialization
- Manufacturing dominance
- Numerous nation-states
- Urbanized population
- High standards of living
Western Europe Eastern Europe British Isles Northern Europe
Europe Central Europe Eastern Europe/The Balkans
- Europe tends to be temperate but climate ranges from the semi-tropical Mediterranean to the
Arctic Circle. Mostly a maritime climate but becoming more continental as one moves east.
- The physical landscape consists of everything from rolling farmland to mountains.
- Central Uplands
- Alpine Mountains
- Western Uplands –
Scandinavia, Britain, Spain
- North European
- All parts of
Europeare located close to the sea and with ready access to navigable water (rivers and lakes).
- Moderate distances between European nations and regions
- Located with easy access to the rest of the World – both land and sea routes
- Began approximately 40 – 50 Thousand Years ago and was completed by around 30,000 years ago.
- Agriculture enters Eastern Europe/The Balkans and Mediterranean Europe beginning around 8,000 years ago. Follow the
DanubeNorth through the Iron Gates.
- Agriculture Enters Central Europe around 6,000 years ago with the Linearbandkeramik Peoples. Stops just short of the
North Seaand Baltic until around 4,500 years ago. (violence, alcohol…)
- Greeks and Romans (from
Britainto the Danube in Northern Europe) Holy Roman Empire
- Lots of history…
1750’s – The Agrarian Revolution
- Based on new agricultural methods and changes in land ownership (more private). Included improved farming practices, better equipment, superior storage facilities, and more efficient transport.
- Set the stage for the Industrial Revolution
Von Thünen Rings – Isolated State Model (Location Theory)
- Classic Geographic Model
- Postulated a central market center surrounded by concentric zones of land use.
- Land use was determined by transportation costs.
- Very basic model with many oversimplifications.
- Became the foundation for modern Location Theory
- Began in
– 1750-1850 Great Britain
- Changed population patterns throughout
- increased urbanization
- increased mechanization and resource exploitation.
- Produced distinct spatial patterning in
- Alfred Weber – 1909
- Examined the factors which influence industrial location
- Focused on activities which occur at specific points
- Identified concentrating (agglomerative) and dispersive (deglomerative) forces set into motion by industrialization.
- Began well before the Agrarian Revolution
- A general trend toward parliamentary representation and democracy
- Began with the Treaty of
- The French Revolution in (1789 – 1795)
- Napoleonic Wars
- Settled the boundaries of European Kingdoms and gave rise to Nationalism
- The development of the Nation-State as embodied by a culturally distinctive population
- The Fragmentation of Europe can be seen in its diversity of languages.
The coming together of Modern
- Focused around the exchange of goods and movement across space
- Based on Three Principles: (Edward Ullman)
- Complementarity – the exchange of needed goods between regions
- Transferability – ease of moving goods from producer to consumer
Opportunity– there are not closer resources available
- Two places, through an exchange of goods, can specifically satisfy each other’s demands.
- One area has a surplus of an item demanded by a second area.
- The ease with which a commodity may be transported or the capacity to move a good at a bearable cost
, Road networks Mountain Passes
- Advances in transportation technology
- The presence of a nearer source of supply or opportunity that acts to diminish the attractiveness of more distant sources and sites
- European countries, especially in the West, are focused around large metropolitan centers – called primate cities.
- 75% of the European population is urbanized
- Very High Urban Population Density (Apartments)
- Central Core (Business District), Suburban Ring
- The term is a political designation.
- Refers to a municipal entity that is governed by some kind of administrative organization
- The largest cities (especially capitals) are:
- the foci of the state
- complete microcosms of their national cultures
- A country’s largest city
- Always disproportionately larger than the second largest urban center -- more than twice the size
- Expressive of the national culture
- Usually (but not always) the capital
Paris, London, Athens
- Central Business District (CBD)
- Suburban Ring
- High suburban density
- Reliance on public transportation
- Land scarcity
- Recreational spaces (greenbelts)
Changing Face of
- Decreasing percentage of the World’s population
- Declining fertility rates and fewer young people
- Reduced working age population
- Increasing immigration (mainly from Muslim nations)
Challenge of Islamic immigration to
· Intensely devout
· Politically aware
· Culturally insular
· Lacking necessary job skills
· Increasingly unemployed
Europeis faced with two paths for the future Unification and/or Instability/Regionalism
- concentrating (agglomerative) and dispersive (deglomerative/devolutionary) forces
- the voluntary association in economic, political, or cultural spheres of three or more independent states willing to yield some measure of sovereignty for their mutual benefit.
- 1947 –
- 1948 - Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC)
- Primary function of the OEEC - To accept and distribute funds allocated under the Marshall Plan
- 1944 Benelux Agreement (along with Marshal Plan sets stage for increasing European unity)
- 1957 Treaty of
– EEC Rome
- 1967 European Community (EC)
- 1991 Maastricht Meeting (plans for the future of the EU)
- 1992 European Union
- 1999 European Monetary
- 2004 Expansion of EU to 25 Members
- The European Union (EU) was formed to coordinate policy in Economics, Defence, and Home Affairs.
Centrifugal Forces and Devolution
- Resistance to loss of national and local autonomy
- Disparity in levels of Economic Development and Wealth
- Technological disparity (West – East divide)
- Cultural disparity
- The process whereby regions and peoples within a state demand and gain political strength and autonomy at the expense of the central government.
• 2000’s – Rejection of European Constitution by several member nationsBritish Example
· Conquest of
· Civil War in
· 1997 – Home Rule for
· Ongoing – Home Rule for
· Done mostly peacefully, even in NI, through the voting boothYugoslav Example
· 1980 – Death of General Tito
· 1991 –
· Serbian Nationalism - Slobodan Miloshevic
· 1992 – Bosnia Herzegovina secedes
· Civil War and Ethnic Cleansing
· Intervention by NATO forces in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Kosovo
Cross Border growth engines…
· The central countries in
· A discrete cultural entity within
· Isolated in modern times by size and climate. On the periphery of
South of the Central Core, the old empires of
· Is everyone else…
· The largest region within
Portugal, Spain, Italy, Greece, Cypress, and Malta
- A discontinuous region on the periphery of
- Internal Core-Periphery relations can be very marked
- Limited amounts of important raw materials
- Deforested and with only seasonal water access
- Large population – agricultural base
- Main entrance for non-European migrants
- Cultural Continuity back to the Greco-Roman Empires
- Cultural Landscape
- Mediterranean Climate
- Hot, Dry Summers
- Warm/Cool, Moist Winters
- Most populous of the Mediterranean Nations (57.8 million)
- Best Connected to the European Core and economically advanced
- Displays a very sharp North-South Divide
AnconaLine – runs across Italyat about Rome
o These provinces are centered around large urban areas (
o The Milan-Turin-Genoa triangle is the industrialized and economic core of
· South of the line is Mezzogiorno – the stagnant, rural south
o Much more poor than the north
o Receives the bulk of illegal immigrants
o Less mobile native population
· At the south-western end of
· Increasingly strong and vibrant democratic tradition.
- Population of 42.6 million centered on the primate city of
Madridand the region of (6.5 million). Catalonia is the leading industrial area and with a strong regional nationalism that creates devolution/separatist tensions. It is within the central European industrial – high-tech core. Catalonia
- Devolution pressure is strong within the Basque region of northern
. Spain Southern Spainfaces drought, inadequate land reform, scarce resources, and remoteness from the developing north.
- Population of 10.5 million focused on coastal regions and on the primate city of
- While it remains generally rural it still must import much of its food and industrial goods.
- Benefiting from EU reconstruction grants for improved transportation and urbanization.
- A cradle of Western Civilization with a population of 11 million focused on the primate city of
- Under the rule of the Ottoman Turks for around 350 years, until independence in 1827.
- It is a geographically fragmented nation and is a fragile democracy.
- While the economy is booming it will loose much of its EU aid to newer Eastern European countries. It will be a challenge to continue the industrial and economic growth following EU expansion.
- Split into Greek-Cypriot and Turkish sides following a war in 1974 the western side of the island is part of the EU and is recognized as an independent state.
- The boundary between Greek-Cypriot and Turkish-Cypriot is a cultural and geographic boundary.
- Archipelago with approximately 400,000 inhabitants this micro-state survives mostly on tourism. It also has a fairly high standard of living.
- It is the ancient cross-roads of the
- The largest area of
Europe, containing the most countries (18).
- It is almost entirely on the periphery of
Europeand is a region of physiographic, cultural, and political fragmentation.
- The region is the crossroads between Asia and
Europeand the roadway for migrations and armies.
- Heavily influenced and shaped by the Soviet occupation following World War II and the earlier Turkish occupation/yoke of the southern regions until the First World War.
- Collapse of the
Soviet Unionexpanded this region to include several former Soviet States.
- Centrifugal Forces
- Forces that tend to divide a country.
- religious, ethnic, linguistic, or ideological differences
- Centripetal Forces
- forces that unite and bind a country together
- national culture, shared ideological objectives, shared faith, shared ethnicity
- The recurrent division and fragmentation of a region, usually involving violence. Name comes from the Balkans – the southern part of
- Ethnic Cleansing
- The forcible ouster of entire ethnic populations from their homelands.
- A policy of cultural extension and political expansion aimed at a national ethnic group living in a different country.
- Shatter Belt
- A zone of chronic political splintering and fracturing.
- When the Soviet Empire collapsed in 1990 none of the Eastern European nations were able to meet the criteria for acceptance into the EU.
- The region includes both the largest (
) and poorest European states. Ukraine
- It can be divided into four general regions.
Poland, Lithuania, , Belarus(?) Latvia Poland, Lithuania, and Latviaall have generally westernized populations – (Germanic) and Baltic States Scandinavian. All have developed and modernizing industries and well educated populations. Poland
The Landlocked Center
Czech Republic, Slovakia, and . Hungary
- Generally the most westernized nations of the region.
Czechoslovakiadevolved into the industrial Czech Republicand the more rural and agrarian . Slovakia was the center of the Magyar Empire and speaks a non-Indo-European language. Hungary Pragueand are classic primate cities. Budapest Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine, Moldova
- All have an inward/westward focus with their primate cities inland and transportation networks focused north and west.
Bulgariaand have been admitted into the EU but will not achieve full membership for several years. Romania is the largest and most powerful of the former Soviet states remains heavily rural with antiquated industrial capacity. Ukraine Belarusand are impoverished Third World Nations and may not survive as independent nations. Moldova Belarusalready has made overtures to for a closer relationship. Russia Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Serbia, Macedonia, Montenegro, Kosovo, Albania
- The foundation of the terms Balkanization and Shatter Belt.
- Held together by the Communist Generalissimo Marshal Tito it fell apart after his death.
- Returned the specter of Ethnic Cleansing to
Europeand the Western World.
- Generally rural with only small urban centers the northern states (
Sloveniaand Croatia, along with ) are the most prosperous and industrialized. Serbia
- Only predominately Muslim nation in
Europeand with the fastest rate of population growth on the continent.
- Poorest except for
is almost entirely rural except for the capital of Tirana. Moldova
- Split between two ethnic groups but maintains national unity.
- the physical attributes of the place it occupies
- its location relative to the surrounding areas
- includes areas of productive capacity
- other cities and towns
- barriers to access and movement
- An independent country that is very small in area and population
- A location along a transport route where goods must be transferred from one carrier to another.
- A place, usually a pot city, where goods are imported, stored, and transshipped. (a break-of-bulk point)